Ubuntu Manual project was founded in 2009 for creating a simple and comprehensive user guide for Ubuntu releases and its derivatives. Now, the new Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail getting started guide is available to download as a PDF file and printed version. Continue reading
In the past year “2012″ The MagPi magazine has released 8 great issues, includes a pretty good informative tutorials and information about a credit card sized computer called the “Raspberry Pi”. Download links for each issue and previews are available down below. Continue reading
Full Circle is a dedicated magazine for Ubuntu Linux distribution. It bring you the latest Ubuntu news, HowTo, graphics tips, application reviews, games… etc. Full Circle is available to download for free. Continue reading
The second issue of the MagPI magazine which is fully dedicated for the Raspberry PI project. In this issue of MagPI, there are many new tutorials for Linux distributions, python tutorials “Python Pit”, basic usage for RaspBerry PI, and the new section command line clinic. Check Download mirrors and quick preview link for the 2nd issue. Continue reading
MagPI is a new dedicated magazine for Raspberry PI will be released monthly for free. This magazine aimed to provide a variety of tutorials, articles, how to setup your Raspberry PI and much more. It has been written by many volunteers with many levels in mind. Check more information about the first issue of MagPI down below. Continue reading
Securing your operating system kinda challenge this days always you want to keep your files and folders safe on your machine if you are connected to network or not. Also if you had installed a web server application on your operating system you have to know how to secure web server applications and databases connected to it such as My SQL. So here I am listing many free, opensource books, manuals, guides and websites resources for SElinux to help you how to secure your own Linux/Unix operating system. Continue reading
For who interesting to know how to use Chmod using command line, usually to change file permission for reading, writing, and executing file as a program it’s quite easy using GUI, it’s even better using command line. Just checked Wikipedia for Chmod file permissions. it’s really good idea to change file permissions using command line.
to change the file permissions you can go to file’s properties then permissions, and that’s quite easy to use.
it’s the same to use the command line. so let’s check some examples.
1. Showing current permissions for a file
Open terminal then type
The output showing current mode
if you compared the output line with the image there you will figure out that both are the same.
” -rwxr-xr-x “ means it has read – write – executable access for both user and group called ” mb “
including last modify date and the name of this file.
2. Showing Current modes located on a directory
Using same command on first example but with the directory name ex.
3. How To Change File Permissions?
There are two ways to change files permission, also you will be able to know more special modes for changing files permissions Octal Numbers and symbolic modes.
First example using octal numbers with four digits
Replace the file name between quotes with your file name.
Second example symbolic modes.
This command will change the file to read and write only, it was executable before we do that in the first step.
Another example using symbolic modes.
This command will restore all permissions to the default.
4. Listing Resources and Links might help also.
That’s it for Now.
Basic comparison between ext4 vs ext3 vs NTFS, it will show the benefits of using ext4 file system, all of them supporting journaling file system will talk more about journaling.
|Stand for||Third extended file system||Fourth extended file system||New Technology File System|
|Max Volume size||32 TB||1 EB limited to 16 TB||16 EB “16 TB – 4 KB with various operating system implementations.”|
|Max file size||16 GB – 2 TB||16 TB||16 EB|
|Max filename length||254 bytes||256 bytes||255 UTF-16 code units|
Introduced the stable release 2001 supporting journaling and that help with speed transferring and there are three levels of journaling for ext3 ” lowest, medium, highest ” risk check Here more information about journaling levels. also supporting compression. check wikipedia ext3.
With the stable release of ext4 in 2008, this become one of the best file system out there, Transferring speed is really good, but it’s not depending on the file system itself only also hardware specifications, operating system, Kernel and many more dependencies. check wikipedia ext4.
usually we don’t use ” NTFS ” file system on linux machine but, just in case your doing dual booting with other operating system support NTFS. and fully working on linux using NTFS-3g. check full features wikipedia NTFS.
Also check those for more informations:
- Full comparison of file systems Here
- File system configurations Here
- Speed test comparison for file system on linux 2.4.5 Here
That’s it for Now
Ubuntu community where you always find help for your problem with the distribution, and they are very helpful on the Ubuntu Forums, it’s even better with Ubuntu documentation you will find a user guide for each release comes from ubuntu to find a solution for your problem. but here we will list other books available to download and read it online.
1. Ubuntu Manual Project
One of the best manual released this year for ubuntu 10.04 LTS, they released first version before ubuntu 10.04 LTS released, they was still working on it released the final version of this book with final version of ubuntu 10.04 LTS.
This book really worth to read become really handy with beginners and advanced users, fully covering a lot of things on ubuntu 10.04 LTS.
Download PDF version from Here
2. Ubuntu Desktop Essentials
Covering many section for customizing and configuring Gnome Desktop ” gdesklets “, best application available for customizations your Ubuntu Desktop with many ways, controlling visual effects using compiz. configuring file manager for nautilus file manager, and even more.
check the Table of content
3. Ubuntu Pocket Guide and Reference
complete guide for Ubuntu installation process, configuration for ubuntu distribution, customizing desktop, getting access to users and files, how to control users administration privileges, understanding command lines and how to use it, software manager and how to secure your operating system.
You can Read it online at Google books From Here. Or download
4. Ubuntu Linux Essentials
Another good guide for installing ubuntu, how to configure it, controlling user privileges, taking administration role on ubuntu. Installing steps using wubi installer, configuring gnome desktop, control wireless network connections, controlling users and groups, ways to remotely access for your ubuntu distribution from another machine. formating and adding new partitions for ubuntu using disk partition.
check the Table of content
5. Ubuntu Guide 10.04 (Lucid Lynx)
A Full guide form A to Z really helpful for beginners and advanced users. covering everything for installation, packages recommended to install on ubuntu distribution and configuration for different window manager.
Check The full Guide Here
6. Documentation for Ubuntu 10.04 LTS
Basic guide for what’s new on ubuntu 10.04 LTS and quick guide for how to use it, also including advanced topics for administration privileges and servers.
Check The Table of Content
7. Ubuntu Server Guide For 10.04 LTS
Fully configuring Ubuntu 10.04 LTS server, installation for important packages for ubuntu 10.04 LTS server, virtualization, and configuring virtual private network VPN, mail customization and filtering. Configuring DNS and fully customize ubuntu 10.04 LTS server.
With these resources and Books you will find a lot of help and information will really help you to easily use Ubuntu distributions.
That’s it for Now.
Linux System administrators always check back for references , guides and Cheat sheets , as they are very powerful helpers and quick shortcut references especially when then the work in progress , but also the system administration students needs to get to know those resources as important source for their education , so in this post i collected many resources for system administrators , and linux system administration students as quick post reference .
1-SAG : System Admin Guide :
Its a guide for system admins and a part of LDP ( Linux Documentation Project – link -) by Lars Wirzenius , Joanna Oja , Stephen Stafford and Alex Weeks , you can browse , read itonline or download a PDF version . Its very well classified and short in the point guide for biggners . I also recommend you to visit Linux Documentation Project Guides ( link ) . and check out for more .
2-Linux System Administration : – PDF -
is a course module by Gbdirect.co.uk , which is very simple , with easy sections and in the point tips and guide . it also with excersises at the ending of every chapter . its very useful for startup .
3-LINUX Admin Quick Reference – PDF -:
Is a very handy reference in 5 pages PDF file , contains that kind of information you print and put it in your wall . as its title suggest : Quick reference its very useful to keep a reference especially at the startup and first stage in your self learning progress . beginners will need it in their study process . ( Chea tsheet )
4-Debian Reference – link -:
an outstanding reference if you are going through Debian and Debian based distros , its free for use and download , available in many formats ( HTML , PDF ,TXT and PS ) .its Multi-lingual as well translated to many languages other than English : French , Italian , German , Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , Chinese ( Traditional ) , Chinese ( Simplified ) , Japanese , Russian and Finnish .
Debian reference comes in 2 modules : full length document and short document .
5-linux system Linux Cheat Sheet – link -:
Its by EZ Linux admin , its kinda short post but its very useful . you may check their other cheat sheets .
6-Top 10 Best Cheat Sheets and Tutorials for Linux / UNIX Commands – link – :
It is an outstanding blog post to enlist and compare between Linux/Unix Commands Cheat Sheets .
7-Linux-Unix cheat sheets – The ultimate collection – link –
Its an outstanding collection to cheat sheets regarding distros , operations as package management , commands , networking ……
8-System Administrator Interview Cheat Sheet – link – :
This is kinda a guide or a map for collection of tutorials , articles , tips , tricks and how to . its by Mj12net.org , there is also part II , you can find in here . Its good job regarding the effort and organization . ( i hope there is PDF version , cause its hard to keep on black background site ) .
9-Linux System Administration Tutorial :
Those tutorials by Developerworks to prepare you for the Linux Professional Institute’s 102 exam. , you will learn how to compile programs from sources, how to manage shared libraries, and how to use the Red Hat and Debian package management systems. You can also build your skills in fundamental Linux tasks through advanced admin .
1-Linux fundamentals, 2-Basic administration ,3-Intermediate administration , 4-Advanced administration .
11-Introduction to Basic Unix System Administration – link – :
I believe linux admins should keep in mind that UNIX is UNIX . so This introduction is needed , and its very helpful .
Linux Network Administration :
Well there is always space for more , but this is what i mean for people who want to start-up on their own , if you found more guides , cheat sheets , or tutorials for system administration drop it in here as a comment .
10 free GNU/Linux Administration Books
Linux based distributions have a lot of different administration options and privilege options, Books listed here will help you with administrations privilege for different distributions debian, fedora, redhat, ubuntu, gentoo, opensuse, mandriva, …..
Also other books for security administrations, and files system directory hierarchy, software help you to secure you system, securing VPN servers,…
## so here we go…
This documentation will attempt to summarize the installation and configuration, as well as the day-to-day administrative and maintenance procedures that should be followed to keep a Linux-based server or desktop system up and running. It is geared to an audience of both corporate as well as home users. It is not intended to be a full overview of Unix operations, as there are several good texts available as well as on-line documentation which can be referred to in cases where more detailed information is required.
The Linux System Administrator’s Guide, describes the system administration aspects of using Linux. It is intended for people who know next to nothing about system administration (those saying “what is it?”), but who have already mastered at least the basics of normal usage. This manual doesn’t tell you how to install Linux; that is described in the Installation and Getting Started document. See below for more information about Linux manuals.
The filesystem standard has been designed to be used by Unix distribution developers, package developers, and system implementors. However, it is primarily intended to be a reference and is not a tutorial on how to manage a Unix filesystem or directory hierarchy.
There are numerous definitions for “computer security”, and most of them are correct. Essentially computer security means enforcement of usage policies, this must be done since people and software have flaws that can result in accidents, but also because someone may want to steal your information, use your resources inappropriately or simply deny you the use of your resources.
This manual assumes the reader is familiar with using a Unix system and/or understands Debian User Reference Manual. Additional reading for System Administrator is Debian GNU/Linux Network Administrator’s Manual. Both of these are available from the Debian Documentation Project. Another useful book is “Linux System Administrator’s Guide” by Lars Wirzenius, available from Linux Documentation Project, http://metalab.unc.edu/LDP/ .
The target audience of the book is anyone who wants to deepen their understanding of how computer systems work, as well as anyone who is likely to become involved with the technical aspects of computer intrusion or system analysis. These are not only system administrators, incident responders, other computer security professionals, or forensic analysts, but also anyone who is concerned about the impact of computer forensics on privacy.
Call it the Linux fallacy. It’s the conventional wisdom that says Linux/UNIX gives you lots of power and reliability in exchange for far more complex and costly systems management. But in fact Linux/UNIX shouldn’t be a tradeoff–as long as you also implement a set of proven best practices.
The GNU/Linux systems have reached an important level of maturity, allowing to integrate them in almost any kind of work environment, from a desktop PC to the sever facilities of a big company.
In the course Systems Administration. It is an attempt to give you an overview of the course and more importantly of computing, Linux and Systems Administration.
Many students commented that they felt lost in the detail of Linux without having an overall picture of how it fits together. Hopefully this chapter will go some way towards solving this problem, and will provide some sort of small map and compass so you have an idea of where you are and where you are going.
The aim of this book is to get you up to speed with GNU/Linux and to deliver a fun and productive environment. It guides you through the many different regions of a GNU/Linux system with a focus on getting your desktop environment to do what you want it to do. It is comprehensive with basic support for the user who installs and maintains the system themselves (whether in the home, office, club, or school). It provides insights and step-by-step procedures that deal with specific tasks in setting your system up and maintaining it. The book covers many of the core features of a GNU/Linux system and you will gain the knowledge to enjoy and use one of the most comprehensive and useful developments in the history of computing.